An egg is Python’s new distribution format, comparable to a .jar in Java. It’s basically a zip file with a particular directory structure containing the code and a bit of metadata. You can get details on eggs directly from the inventor at the PEAK Developers’ Center.
A freshly quickstarted project will have a setup.py file. This file allows you to easily package your file for redistribution both for internal use and for sharing on the Cheeseshop or the Cogbin. Creating an egg is as simple as switching to your project directory and running:
python setup.py bdist_egg
This will produce an egg file for the current version of your project in the ./dist folder.
The simplest way to use an egg is to copy it over to your production machine and do:
[sudo] easy_install *myapp*.egg
If you do not have easy_install on the target machine, you need to install the setuptools package first to get it, either through your operating system’s software package system or by downloading the bootstrapping program ez_setup.py. Conveniently, ez_setup.py also takes the same arguments that easy_install takes, so python ez_setup.py *myapp*.egg will do the full install. Be sure to switch over to easy_install after the first run.
As long as the setup.py lists TurboGears as a requirement (see the section on adding requirements), it should be possible for somebody to install your application with just the egg and easy_install or ez_setup.py including the installation of TurboGears itself and all its dependencies.
This is a nice feature for application deployment, but be aware that installing an egg can also upgrade TurboGears and other packages if the egg requires a later version than the system provides. If long term system stability is important to you, you may want to investigate solutions like virtualenv.
Please be also aware that by default the setup.py file of a quickstarted project will require a TurboGears version that is equal or newer than the version which was used to run tg-admin quickstart. This means if you install your application and TurboGears is not installed or only an older version than required, easy_install will fetch and install the newest TurboGears version it can find. This includes beta versions and release candidates of future TurboGears versions with a higher major version number. If you want to ensure that your application will only install a known good TurboGears version, you should add a more specific version constraint for TurboGears in setup.py (again, see adding requirements on how to do this).
As a part of the easy_install process, a console script that fulfills the same function as your start-*pkgname*.py script is installed in a system binary directory, whose location depends on your operating system (e.g. under /usr/bin on Unix or Python\Scripts on Windows). This is the same place that tg-admin is installed and it is usually on your PATH, so you should be able to start up your project from anywhere. You can change the installation directory for console scripts with the --script-dir option to easy_install.
Assuming the package name of your project is sample, you would then start your application with:
$ start-sample prod.cfg
where prod.cfg is your deployment configuration file, which is treated in the next section.
To get everything up and running, you also need a deployment configuration file (usually called prod.cfg by convention) and pass the name of this file as the first and only argument to your start script.
Since TurboGears 1.0.4 the default start script also can find and use a default deployment configuration file, which is packaged in your application’s egg. To include such a default configuration, all you need to do is to uncomment the line that starts with #data_files in the setup.py file of your project, put your default configuration in a file named default.cfg in your project directory and build the egg as explained above with python setup.py bdist_egg.
Your deployment configuration should specify location and parameters for the production database that your project will use.
This can be the same database as the one you created with tg-admin sql create while developing your application. If you use a different database for production (a wise decision) you will need to create the tables in the database, before using it for the first time.
tg-admin -c prod.cfg sql create
will create the necessary tables using the database specified in the deployment configuration file prod.cfg.
By specifying all your dependencies, not just TurboGears, easy_install can completely automate your package setup. You specify dependencies by modifying the requires argument in setup() in your setup.py file to include the name of the package you need. Here is an example that adds the fictional package FooBar as an installation requirement:
setup( name="test", version=0.1, zip_safe=False, install_requires = [ "TurboGears >= 1.0.1", "FooBar" ], ...
If you need a specific version of the package you can use comparison operators against the version name. You can see that happening in the above example, as this project depends on “TurboGears version 1.0.1 or greater”. See the setuptools documentation for more information on declaring dependencies.
If you decide to share your creation with the world, the easiest way to do so is by using the Cheeseshop (technically the Python Package Index, but nobody calls it that). Before you can upload your project to the Cheeseshop, you will need an account. You can create one on the PyPI registration page.
After you have created an account, you will need to tell setuptools your account information for uploading the file. See the distutils documentation for details on this.
Now that you have your account configured and you’ve updated the metadata in setup.py, you need to register a page for your application. setuptools can do this for you automatically with the following command:
python setup.py register
Once you have everything configured, setuptools can upload your egg automatically. Here is the command you need:
python setup.py bdist_egg upload
Any eggs you created in the process should also be available in the dist/ folder of your project.
You can also register projects and upload your eggs manually. This setuptools tutorial should be enough to get you going.
The CogBin scans the CheeseShop for updated packages and looks for keywords it recognizes. To make your project available in the CogBin, simply add the appropriate keyword(s) to your setup.py file:
This goes in the keywords argument to setup() in your setup.py file. If you are using the file provided in a quickstarted project these options should already be listed, just uncomment the ones you need.
The procedure described here to turn the start script into a setuptools console script is already taken care of with TurboGears versions > 1.0.3.
However you can use the same technique to provide additional console scripts for your application.
Another nice feature you get for free from setuptools is the ability to automatically create console scripts. The TurboGears package itself uses this feature to install the tg-admin command. By declaring a console_scripts entry point in your project’s setup.py, you can get setuptools to handle all of the platform-dependent work of setting up a script for you. It even creates appropriate .exe files on windows!
As a sample, let’s take the basic start-<pkgname>.py script and turn it into a command you can run. First, copy your start-<pkgname>.py file into the project itself in a new file named commands.py. Then reformat it so it looks something like this:
import pkg_resources pkg_resources.require("TurboGears") from os.path import * import os import sys def start(): from turbogears import update_config, start_server import cherrypy cherrypy.lowercase_api = True # first look on the command line for a desired config file, # if it's not on the command line, then # look for setup.py in the current working directory. If it's not there, # this script is probably installed if len(sys.argv) > 1: update_config(configfile=sys.argv, modulename="sample.config") elif exists(join(os.getcwd(), "setup.py")): update_config(configfile="dev.cfg",modulename="sample.config") else: update_config(configfile="prod.cfg",modulename="sample.config") from sample.controllers import Root start_server(Root())
The big change that we made was capturing most of the startup script’s logic in a new start function that takes no arguments. Other than that we had to modify the elif statement that is looking for your dev.cfg file so it uses the current directory instead of looking for it in the same directory as the calling file.
Now all you have to do is add an entry point that tells setuptools you are implementing a console script. This is done in your setup.py file. Here is a sample line:
setup( name="sample", version=version, ... entry_points = """ [console_scripts] sample-start = sample.commands:start ... """, ... )
That is pretty much it. When your project is installed, unless the user specifically requests that console scripts are not installed, a sample-start script is created and placed in the normal system directory.
If you don’t want to use a development installation of your egg you can always rewrite start-<pkgname>.py to look something like the following:
from sample.commands import start start()